Medial shoulder rotation

Medial shoulder rotation can be caused by either the scapula or glenohumeral joint and is usually present in a dysfunctional shoulder. This is because a medially rotated shoulder is symptomatic of a depressed shoulder as the shoulder has to protract around the rib...

Scapula abduction

Scapula abduction is caused by weak and lengthened shoulder retractors such as the trapezius and tight muscles such as the teres major, pec major, latissimus dorsi. If the abduction is due to an abducted glenohumeral joint leading to a depressed scapula, see my post...

Humeral anterior glide

Humeral anterior glides occurs due to dominance of the pec major and/or teres major over the more intrinsic subscapularis. HAG is defined by Sarhmann as the humerus being a third in front of the acromion as presented in the right hand picture below. Humeral anterior...

Scapula winging

Scapula winging is caused either by a weak serratus anterior or tight scapulohumeral muscles. Protrusion of the lower border of the scapulae indicates a tight pec minor Complete dissociation of the scapula from the thorax indicates pathology of the long thoracic nerve...

Downwardly rotated scapulae

A downwardly rotated scapula can be caused by tight; levator scapulae, rhomboids, deltoid, supraspinatus, pec major/minor. Or weak/lengthened upper trapezius, lower trapezius and serratus anterior(1). The individual above presents with 9 degrees of downward rotation...

Depressed scapula position

A depressed scapula can cause impingement of the shoulder and thoracic outlet syndrome. The scapula needs to medially rotate or protract around the ribcage to maintain a position with the glenoid cavity. Depression of one scapula in relation to the other is quite...